+593 2 2 50 5310, +593 96 29 35 271

info@parks-and-tribes.com

No sexi videos but solid informative texts

 

 

PARKS AND TRIBES

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS

National Flower, the Chuquiragua

NOT the Rose is the national flower of Ecuador horticulture's jewel of the agro-business, BUT a bright orange shrub of the Andes: See the name and the picture below of National Flower of Ecuador. One can admire the national flower in the high paramo of the Chimborazo Fauna Reserve near Riobamba as well as several other high Andes parks.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, THE CHUQUIRAGA: the best developed shrub is the Chuquiraga jussieui.

The Bright Orange Chuquirahua.

 

FIND OUT HOW YOU CAN ACTUALLY GET TO SEE THE GREAT FLOWERS OF ECUADOR ON OUR NATURE CULTURE TOUR ALONG ALL ECUADOR'S LANDSCAPES!

 

Native Flowers of Ecuador

In general, the warm humid conditions of the tropical jungle throughout the year provide optimal conditions for plants. Consequently, one finds many more species in the tropics than in the temperate climates. Currently over 400,000 species of plants and flowers Native of Ecuador have been identified for the tropical jungle of the Amazon and botanists continue to add new names to the rainforest flowers and native plants of Ecuador list every year. Biologists found that the greatest variety in  rainforest tree species in Ecuador live in the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve, together with Yasuni National Park, which have the richest in plant diversity in the world. There are several reasons why Cuyabeno and Yasuni are richer in plant species then Amazon parks in neighboring countries:

  1. Cuyabeno and Yasuni National Park are still very close to the lower Andes foothills, and still has species that require the lower-Andes ecological conditions;

  2. Slow-flowing rivers and the lakes in the upper-watersheds provide sediment-poor "black-water" ecology favorable for certain aquatic life-forms while sediment-rich "coffee and milk" colored waters abound in the Amazon.

  3. Both well-drained hills "tierra firma" ecosystems and swamp ecosystems are present in the reserves;

  4. Cuyabeno is situated precisely on the Equator and Yasuni, just south of it, where seasonal fluctuations are relatively mild and where rain even falls during the "dry season", allowing species to survive that don't support several months of total drought.

World's Greatest Diversity of Rainforest Flowers is in Ecuador

In fact, Ecuador is the world's smallest megadiverse country and has the world's greatest biodiversity per hectare. This diversity is the result of several factors:

  1. It is one of the only 10 continental countries on the equator, most of which are characterized by wet tropical conditions;

  2. Being on the equator, most rainforests have relatively little seasonal variety, allowing more species to survive than in regions with more seasonal fluctuation in precipitation and temperatures;

  3. The Andes divides the country in three zones, each with different sets of species;

  4. The coastal region of Ecuador is in the transition from the world's wettest region in the world, the Choco rainforest in Colombia and the southern Andean deserts that start in Peru with countless endemic species.

Dear visitor, our website gives you info about our National Parks Tours, our Galapagos programs, the Cuyabeno Loop, as well as our Cuyabeno  and Cofan Lodges in the Amazon.   For those who want to combine the Exuberant Nature of Ecuador with the Famous culture of Peru, we even have a 7 days Highlights of Peru extension! Our website gives you the best information on the internet, like Ecuador Travel Guide, because we are the only tour operator run by professional biologists. Take a look:

 

OUR PARKS AND TRIBES ECO TOURS

(Scroll down for the rest of this current page)

AMAZON RIVER CRUISE ECUADOR: In Ecuador, birding is for all ages.

 NEW! CUYABENO DAY TRIP

For those that are limited in time, we are now organizing the Cuyabeno Day Trip that takes you at 9 AM from the park entrance to the surroundings of Lake Cuyabeno, to the Siona village and back by 5 PM.

 

 

 

Price: from $ 99

 1 día

RÍO NAPO LODGE TOUR, ECUADOR: La plataforma en el árbol de Ceibo de la comunidad Kichwa Añagu.

NEW YASUNI / NAPO RIVER TOUR

Lodges along Yasuni ­ National Park are excessively expensive and excursions are just organized close to each lodge. We developed a fabulous and affordable tour to all the highlights along the Napo, while staying in 2 different decent Quichua lodges.

 

 

Price: from $ 450

3 days

viaje a Cuyabeno

 NEW LAGARTOCOCHE EXPEDITION

The most remote part of the Amazon is the Lagartocoche lake system at the border with Peru. Hosted in a Secoya Indian Village.

 

Price: from $ 450

 4 days

admirando la increíble vida silvestre

CUYABENO LOOP

The Cuyabeno Loop explores the breathtaking scenery of the lower Cuyabeno and Zabalo Rivers and the Cuyabeno Lake. Watch the amazing birds and wildlife. Pass 2 nights with the amazing Cofan Indians in the Cofan Lodge and enjoy 2 nights of comfort in the famous Cuyabeno Lodge.

Price: from $ 799

5 days

 

admirando las increíbles aves

COFAN LODGE PROGRAMS

Located in Southern Cuyabeno, the Cofan Lodge is the only lodge in that part of the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve with quality programs and great facilities. It is owned by the Cofan Indians and provides a totally different experience from any other lodge in Cuyabeno.

 

 

Price: from $ 450

4 days

Laguna Cuyabeno

CUYABENO LAKE PROGRAMS

The Cuyabeno Lake Programs explores all the wild places surrounding the Cuyabeno Lake. Bonsai-shaped Macrolobia trees with the whispering of the mysterious prehistoric Hoatzin birds and the noisy Blue and Yellow Macaws. Our Cuyabeno Lodge is on the best location, because we were the first lodge and chose the best location right on a seasonal island in Lake Cuyabeno.

Price: from $ 390

4 - 5 days

 

Chimborazo con Lamas

ANDES CUSTOM ECO TOURS

Our Northern Andes Tour lets you get a taste of some of the best Andean National Parks, visiting the highest groves in the world: the Polylepis trees, the highest mountain in the world calculated from the center of the Earth, the Chimborazo with Vecunhas and Lamas, the highest active volcano in the world, the Cotopaxi.

 

Price: from $750

5 days

Cascada San Rafael

NATIONAL PARKS TOUR

Our National Parks Tours take you on a fantastic journey along the best possible sample of Andean and coastal parks. They have been designed to complement Galapagos and/or Amazon cruises. They can start from different places, particularly Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca. While the full program lasts 9 days, it is possible to make a limited selection of parks, like the 6 days' "Andes and Coast" module.

Price: from $ 1999

9 days

 

Bartelome ent Galapagos

GALAPAGOS LAST MINUTE

We have a fabulous selection of Galapagos programs, including cruises, island hopping, scuba diving or relaxing on one of the many different hotels varying from modest inns to deluxe resorts.

 

 

Price: from $ 550

From 3 days

25 COOLEST THINGS TO DO IN PERU [LIMA,CUSCO, MACHU PICCHU]: Inca wall in Cusco.

PERU HIGHLIGHTS

A fabulous program for visiting the most famous cultural highlights Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and the Sacred Valley. At the same time it serves as the Lima hub for the Peru National Parks Tour. This module is an extension to our National Parks Tour Ecuador and/or Galapagos National Park and/or Amazon Cruises.

Price: from $ 1199

7 days

Continuación del presente tema

 

We have fabulous tours to the 2 Amazon mega parks, the Cuyabeno Nature Reserve  and  Yasuni National Park. Each one has its own attractions and in both you will get to see many Ecuadorian rainforest flowers.

 

Being extremely rich in species of plants and trees, it is very rare that a single plant  or tree can become so abundant that it dominates the landscape. In the tropical rainforest of Ecuador, flowers bloom, one natural plant at the time. Along the coast and in the Andes however, the situation is very different. Usually there are a few or even sometimes one species that dominate the vegetation. Particularly in the dry season you will seethe yellow flowers of the trumpet tree, Tabebuia chrysantha, dominate the landscape, while the national flower of Ecuador, The Chuquirahua, shows its orange flowers abundantly in the high paramos of the national parks and protected areas of Ecuador.

 

The sunlight on the forest floor of the Amazon rainforest is so low, that few plant species can live there. This has resulted in the evolution of plants that may live high up on trees: Epiphytes. They can grow on trunks, branches, leaves as well as on top of other Epiphytes. Each tree is an ecosystem by itself with its own flora and fauna. Take a look at bromeliads, orchids, aroids, mosses, ferns and lichens in the Amazon. In the Andes, and the dry forests of the Pacific coast, you find very different species as other factors determine their abundance, like the humidity in the air. Great examples you will find in the Machalilla National Park, a few hours away from Guayaquil. Without any doubt, the lowest species diversity and the dominance of just one species, the Red Magrove, you will find in Ecuador's mangroves, like Churute Mangrove reserve and in Corazon and Fregatas Mangrove. You will only find micro epiphytes on mangroves.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Epiphytes on Macrolobia are common Amazon rainforest plants in the marshes of the Cuyabeno Lake, EcuadorNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Epiphytic bromeliad cloud forest.

Epiphytes form complete micro-ecosystems.

 

In the coastal lowlands, Cotacachi Cayapas is the richest in plant species, being in the Choco humid tropical region, while getting down to just over 200 masl in its lowest parts. Other coastal lowland parks may be less diverse in species, as they are either mangrove parks - mangroves are notoriously species-poor - or located in zones with less rainfall and during their pronounced dry seasons, both factors that impact species diversity negatively.

 

Bromeliads

With in excess of 2,000 species of Bromeliads, they're are very prominently present in Ecuador. Sometimes, one can find them growing on the ground, but mostly, they live on branches as Epiphytes. The leaves of Bromeliads wrap around their stems thus creating little spaces where rainwater can accumulate. Sometimes a single plant can hold several liters of water. In absence o fishes, these tiny little pools provide safe environments for aquatic species such as amphibians: frogs along with their tadpoles, salamanders as well as their larvae. Other creatures include snails, beetles, mosquito larvae, etc. When those animals die, their bodies decay and function as fertilizers to the host plants. As Bromeliads come in a number of colors like purple, blue, orange and red, they're getting increasingly fashionable as ornamentals. In dry parks, like Machalilla, bromeliads are essential in catching water from seasonal mists, which they share with their host trees. Naturally you know our favorite Bromeliad, the Pine Apple. In high Andes parks, like Cajas National Park, just an hour away from Cuenca, and in El Angel Ecological Reserve you will find bromeliads as ground rosette species like the Hercules Club, one of the most primitive bromeliad families.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Bromelia are Amazon rainforest plants growing at the Cuyabeno LodgeNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Bromeliad cloud forest floor.

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Bromelias are becoming popular for the homesNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Water accumulates in bromelia to form safe environments for todpoles

Little water pools in Bromeliad leave basis.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Epifytes dry forest.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Bromeliad dry forest, Ecuador

Trees covered by epiphytes.

 

Orchids

With as many as 20,000 species in the Amazon region alone, Orchids form the most species rich family in the plant kingdom. In forests they grow mostly as Epiphytes, occurring in many different shapes and colors, including green. They have grown to be increasingly successful plants to the horticultural sector as clients value the longer lives of the flowers, their bright colors and their exotic shapes. While more abundant in rainforests, the more spectacular orchids used in horticulture are species from dry tropical forests.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Jungle flower as they decorate the Amazon rainforest plants.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Amazon rainforest plants on a Macrolobium tree in the Laguna Grande, EcuadorNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Amazon jungle orchid is one of the many Amazon rainforest plantsNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Amazon rainforest plants include the Orchids growing in Cuyabeno.

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Yellow orchid belonging to the Amazon rainforest plantsNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: White and Purple Orchid belonging to the Amazon rainforest plants.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Green orchids are common among the Amazon rainforest plants.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Bright orchid are very popular among the Amazon rainforest plants.

The colors and shapes of orchids.

 

Heliconias

Heliconias  have spectacular multicolored flowers of both wet and seasonal tropical forests. With their spectacular shapes and colors, heliconias are have becoming in fashion as ornamental flowers.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: heliconia are well-represented among the Amazon rainforest plants.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: heliconias are common Amazon rainforest plants. NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Heliconia Amazon rainforest plant.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Heliconia, Amazon rainforest plant, Ecuador

Bright colors and fascinating shapes of heliconias.

 

Other flowers

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Purple Amazon rainforest plant.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Flower of a plant in the Amazon Rainforest.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Red and yellow flower of Amazon Forest plant.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Yellow flowers of plants in the amazon rainforest.

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Cuyabeno River Amazon rainforest plant.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Cuyabeno River marsh Amazon rainforest plant flower.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Amazon tributary rainforest marsh plant flower.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Upper Amazon rainforest plant: Butterfly Pea

Tropical flowers occur in many shapes and colors.

 

Coniferous trees in South America

There are no native pine trees in South America, which have their southernmost pine species in Nicaragua. But there are only a few conifers in South America,  in Ecuador the Podocarpus trees, in Podocarpus National Park as well as a few other parks, and in Argentina and Chile the Monkey Puzzle Tree, Araucaria araucana. Other than those, all South American conifers, like the common Pinus Radiata in the Andes of Ecuador, have been introduced from the North.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Podocarpus Oleifolius Tree EcuadorNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Podocarpus Oleifolius Trunk Ecuador

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Podocarpus oleifolius twigs, EcuadorNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Podocarpus Oleifolius leaves Ecuador

Above: Podocarpus trees in Podocarpus National Park; Below: Podocarpus oleifolius twigs.

Above: Podocarpus bark; Below: Podocarpus leaves.

 

Swamps in Ecuador

For non-native speakers: a marsh is a wetland with primarily grass, reed and moss vegetation, while a swamp is a - sometimes temporarily - inundated forest. From the Cotacachi peak at 4939 masl to the Cayapas lowlands in the Cotacachi - Cayapas Reserve, just above 200 masl is less than 75 km and it has at least 10 different ecosystems within the reserve. On the other hand, from the Andes foothills to the Atlantic Ocean, the elevation difference is only about 300m over a distance of about 3000km, in other words an average of 10cm per kilometer. The variety of ecosystems is limited to just very few, albeit, that the number of species within each humid tropical lowland ecosystem is enormous. Also, under such circumstances flooding is very common and there are many swamp forests as opposed to the Andes slopes, where swamps and marshes are limited to presence in the paramos only. in the Amazon lowlands, the swamp forests consist of  Macrolobium forest and seasonally inundated forests in the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and oxbow swamps in Yasuni Macrolobium trees are covered with countless epiphytes, which in some cases may reach a layers of up to 1m thick.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium swamp forestNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium treeNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium ancient hollow treeNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium covered with epiphytes

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium bonsay tree.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium flowersNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium blooming.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Macrolobium pods.

Macrolobium trees with flowers and pods.

 

The Macrolobium groves are located in the shallow flooded zones of the Cuyabeno and other lakes, including at Lagarta Coche at the border with Peru. These bonsai shaped legume trees stand in water at depth where other trees can't survive; as mucho as 3m deep during high water levels. On such locations, they grow no more than 5 - 8 m high. But they also grow in much regular forests, where they reach up to 30 m high. During the dry season, when they are flowering they may occasionally stand dry. Their leaves are the favorite browse for hoatzins, while the sometimes 1 meter thick carpet of epiphytes for micro-ecosystems in their own right.

 

Famous worldwide, but extremely rare in their worldwide occurrence are the Mangrove forests, which are the swamp forests of the Pacific coast. Other than those, very few marshes and swamps occur in the western lowlands.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Red Mangrove forest, Pacific Ocean, EcuadorNATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Conocarpus erecta Mangrove with air roots, Pacific Coast, Ecuador

Red Mangrove trees.

Black mangrove, with countless air roots up into the air .

 

Vines

Vines too, constitute a life form that has responded to the low light conditions of the forest floor. In stead of growing at a rather slow pace like epiphytes, vines grow along tree trunks; without the need to grow solid strong stems or trunks, they can grow much faster to reach the greater light conditions in the canopies. They hold on to tree trunks with sucker roots, tendrils or by winding themselves along their host tree. The word "lianas" refers to thick woody vines of the tropics and a number of them may grow to a length of several hundreds of meters as they spread across many tree crowns.

A special vine is the Strangler Fig which is a common name for many species of vines that completely wrap the trunk of a host tree, which will eventually end up dying or being being "strangled". As the host tree dies, one will find that these trees have a hollow central core at the place where the host trunk used to grow.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Liana or vine reaching for the tree crowns.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Liana or vine in the tropical rainforest are abundant among the Amazon rainforest plants.

Vines.

 

In the picture on the right you can see that hardly any plants can grow on the dark rainforest floor itself. Vines have adapted themselves to use the "fast lanes" of tree trunks to grow towards the light of the canopy.

 

Strangler vines

Strangler vines are transform themselves into trees: As they grow more and more vines and branches around their host species, the trunks of the latter get totally covered under a cover of vine trunk.  As they grow, they end up suppressing or "strangling their host by taking all the nutrients and light. After the host dies, its trunk decomposes and the strangler vine becomes a tree with a hollow but healthy core.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Strangle vine or"Banyan"  is an Amazon rainforest plants refered to as figs.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Strangle Vine or "Banyan"  in the Amazon.

Different stages of strangler vines.

 

Other impressive tree forms

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Buttress tree tropical jungle.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: hollow strangler fig.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: fern epiphytes.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Air roots in the Amazon resemble Red Mangrove roots.

Differents tree forms.

 

Some of the forest giants are so tall and heavy, that they need buttress roots to support them, while some of them actually grow in hollow shapes. Much of their weight is due to thick covers of epiphytes, that can absorb large quantities of water that  weigh down the trees. Other trees live along lake or river shores and have large numbers of roots growing down from their branches, thus resembling "fresh water mangroves". With so many different species in the jungle, it is impossible to name all plants and native flowers of Ecuador.

 

Dry forests

The coastal dry forests are the opposite of the swamps, characterized by many adaptations, like cacti, leathery and leaves, deciduousness (leave shedding), dwarf trees and shrubs, etc.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Dry coastal shrubland Ecuador.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Cactus forest.

Coastal srubland at the Frailes Beach, Machalilla National Park.

Lowland shrubs dominated by cacti.

 

Paramos

Often considered extremely species rich, the actually are rather species poor, with a limited number of shrubs, grasses and often compressed dicots dominating the vegetation. Nevertheless, many of their species are very conspicuous and beautiful en contribute to the 10,000 native flowers of Ecuador.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Epidendrum Jamieson is an orchid common in the paramo.NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS: Paramo Mistletoe Shrub, Psittacanthus sp. is a parasitic shrub.

An orchid common in the paramo.

Paramo Mistletoe, a parasitic shrub in the paramo.

 

To actually see some of these beautiful flowers you may consider Amazon Rainforest Tours Ecuador.

 

NATIONAL FLOWER ECUADOR, NATIVE PLANTS, RAINFOREST FLOWERS

PARKS & TRIBES Travel Agency in Quito
Ecuador Address: Las Casas, Crossing Street: Jose Coudrin, 2 streets above the Occidental Highway, Canton Quito, Prov. Pichincha, Neighborhood Belisario Quevedo 
Tel: (++593)(02) 2 2324 4086, Cell: (++593) (0) 99 283 2187 USA: (++)1 304 901 0718
Email: info@parks-and-tribes.com
NO SEXI-VIDEOS, BUT SOLIDE INFORMATION FROM REAL EXPERTS